Species of the Oceans Adelie Penguin The Adélie Penguin lives along the coast of Antarctica in colonies. Adélies are about 18-24 inches tall and can weigh up to 10 lbs. Their meals consist mostly of krill and occasionally squid. Their number one predator is the Antarctic Fur Seal. Gentoo Penguin The Gentoo Penguin is the 3rd largest penguin, right behind the Emperor and King. They live in Antarctica and its surrounding islands. They prefer to live on rocky and coastal plains surfaces. This species of penguin can weigh up to 14 lbs. Gentoo parents make circular nests to breed in. Both of the parents take turns sitting on the egg and are considered to be very nurturing. Gentoos are incredibly fast in the water. They are the fastest diving bird, reaching speeds of up to 22 mph. These penguins do eat fish, by exist mostly on crustaceans. Narwhal The narwhal is an interesting looking porpoise, featuring only two teeth. For the males, one of those teeth ends up growing into the long, sword-like tusk coming out of its upper lip that can reach lengths of up to 8.8 feet. Females are occasionally known to also grow this tusk, but it never becomes as long as the male’s. The Inuit people hunt the narwhal for its tusk and the nutrients in its skin. Galapagos Fur Seal This seal is endemic to the Galapagos Islands and is an endangered species. For how clumsy they look on land, their speed and agility in the water, makes up for it. They live in colonies along the shoreline. They tend to be curious creatures and that can often land them in harm’s way. They are resilient though, having fought back from the brink of extinction. They are the smallest of all southern seals, but can still reach lengths of up to 5 feet. Weddell Seal The Weddell Seal is a carnivorous mammal that lives in Antarctica and Falkland Islands. They can mostly be found in the water, swimming under ice to avoid predators and to find fish. When trying to catch fish, they sometimes use the element of surprise by blowing air into cracks in the ice, to scare small fish. They have amazing diving abilities and can stay under the water for up to 45 minutes. They have an average life span of 12 to 15 years. Weddell’s have an interesting grooming technique. They utilize the ice by rolling and rubbing their bodies in the spots they can’t normally reach, in order to keep clean. Beluga Whale The Beluga Whale has a distinctive white coloring to its skin. They live in groups of other Beluga’s called pods and are a threatened species. They can be found in arctic and subarctic waters. A Beluga’s diet consists mostly of worms, fish and crustaceans. They are social creatures and enjoy talking to one another using a distinctive language of clicks and whistles. Walrus Walrus’ are extremely social mammals and can generally be found around the Arctic Circle. During mating season, the male walruses become very aggressive with one another. Their tusks are useful. They are found on both the males and the females, and they often use their tusks to assist them out of the water. Males also use their tusks to protect their harem. Walruses love to eat shellfish and use their sensitive whiskers to detect where the shellfish are on the ocean floor. Kittiwake A Kittiwake is part of the gull family of birds. They make their nests along the coasts and cliffs of the North and South Atlantic seaboards. Their main source of food is fish. They are lightweight birds, only reaching up to 18.5 oz. They nest in colonies and use a mixture of wet and dry materials to form their nests. Common Eider A Common Eider is a type of duck found in the northern hemisphere. They are in fact, the largest duck found in this region. Males can reach weights of up to 6.7 lbs. These birds dive into the water in order to get their main meals of mollusks and crustaceans. A group of these birds are called crèches. Their eggs are a green or olive color. Emperor Penguin The Emperor Penguin is the largest of all the 18 different species of penguins. Emperors live in colonies. During the long winter, they all huddle together and take turns moving around, in order to keep warm. They tend to live 15 to 20 years in the wild, and can weigh up to 88 lbs. The penguin is a flightless bird, but still has wings. These wings are flattened into flippers to make swimming easier. Emperors have a unique buddy locating system. They rely on vocal calls to identify their mates, chicks and parents. Even within a large colony of penguins, their calls are loud and unique enough to be identified over all the noise of the other birds. Mudskipper Mudskippers are considered amphibious fish. This type of fish uses pectoral fins in order to walk on land. They also have the incredible ability to launch themselves up to 2 feet in the air, using their muscular body. They tend to live upwards of 5 years. Marine Iguana This species of iguana is only found on the Galapagos Islands. It is an herbivore with an average life span of 5 to 12 years. Known as a marine reptile, this iguana can dive over 30 feet in the water. It tends to eat mostly different forms of algae and seaweed. They also have long, sharp claws to help out holding onto the rocky shores of their environment. They are considered a vulnerable species. Sea Otter Sea Otters are part of the weasel family and spends a large majority of time in the water. It’s found along the coasts of the Pacific Ocean. It has webbed feet making it an agile swimmer. The Sea Otter likes to float on its back to sleep and often uses seaweed to anchor itself in the water. They have a wide ranging diet consisting of octopus to shellfish to squid. Mother otters give birth in the water and then nurse their young while floating on their backs. They hold the babies on their chest, while they learn the ins and outs of swimming. They are also incredibly hygienic. They like to maintain a neat and clean appearance by washing themselves in the ocean water using their teeth and paws. Harbor Seal Harbor Seals are found on the coasts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. They usually grow to be about six feet long. Their coloration tends to be silvery to blue with spots. When it comes to breeding, this seal likes to return to the spot it was born in order to have its pups. They are efficient eaters and tend to swallow their food whole. They can dive to depths of 300 feet. Cuttlefish The cuttlefish is a type of mollusk and is found in oceans all over the world. They have tentacles surrounding their mouth. When the cuttlefish is engaged in an altercation or mating, they flash the colors on their body. They also use their coloration to blend into its environment. As a defensive mechanism, they have ink sacks that can be fired off at a predator. It’s most common predators are sharks and larger fish. Mantis Shrimp Mantis Shrimp are fierce fighters with the most complex eyes under the sea. They capture their prey using their limbs as a spear. If they don’t spear their prey, they also use their limbs as a club to smash their meal. There are around 400 species of this shrimp all around the world and can be small or up to a foot long. They tend to live in burrows that they made themselves or that have already been shelled out by other creatures. They also occasionally make their home in coral. The mantis shrimp is very colorful and can make its colors glow even brighter when it wants to. Ghost Crab This species of crab is widely found on the Atlantic Coast, all the way from New Jersey to Brazil. The ghost crab blends into its environment well because of its sandy to white coloring. Digging tunnels under the sand, the ghost crab lives in burrows up to 3.3 feet deep. Red Octopus The red octopus is typically found in the Pacific Ocean, from Alaska to Baja, California. The red octopus usually makes its meals of crustaceans, mollusks and fish. It is also an expert in distraction. It can spray out an ink cloud, making it difficult for its predators to see. It’s also a master of disguise. The red octopus can alter its coloring to better blend in with its environment. Sea Cucumber Sea cucumbers are considered to be echinoderms and can be found in all the world’s oceans. They are typically found on the ocean floor or even sometimes underneath it. Sea cucumbers have an interesting defense mechanism. When they feel threatened, they release sticky threads of discharged materials to trap their predators. They can grow to be a wide range of lengths – anywhere from .75 inches to 6.5 feet. In Asia, some people eat the sea cucumber and consider it a delicacy. Goatfish This is a tropical or warm water fish. It mainly feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Their coloring is on the bright side, leaning towards reds and yellows. Goatfish also tend to be small and some species are edible. They are often seen around coral reefs. Stonefish The stonefish is a brownish-green color, which is helpful for blending into the ocean floor. Their back is covered in venomous spines. If a person is stung, the venom could cause temporary paralysis. It tends to makes its home on coral reefs or near rocks. Triggerfish There are 40 different types of triggerfish that live in the Eastern Pacific, all the way down to Peru. They use their fins to flap out their prey from the ocean floor. Their main meals consist of crabs and worms. These fish tend to be loners and are not often found in schools. Triggerfish are not the nicest fish in the sea. They have a bad attitude and tend to attack and charge at divers, as well as other fish. Stingray Stingrays are widely recognizable for their flat bodies, eyes on the side of their heads and a tail sticking out of the back of their body. Their mouths and nostrils are located on the bottom of their body. Located around the stingray’s mouth are electrical sensors called ampullae of Lorenzini, which sense the electrical charges of potential prey. Their prey consists of different kinds of mollusks. The stingray’s barb is sharp and contains poisonous venom. If the stingray becomes frightened or feels threatened, it may use it’s barb to strike at the potential threat. Cleaner Wrasse These species are carnivorous scavengers that occasionally feed on crustaceans. They have elongated bodies with small mouths. The Bluestreak Wrasses are blue with black bands. They can live up to four years. They inhabit coral reefs where they attract larger fish that stop to get cleaned by these species. They are found in the Indo-Pacific region. Filefish The majority of these fish feed on algae and crustaceans. They thrive in tropical and subtropical areas and can be found in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. They tend to have rough skin and can grow to be as long as 43 inches, but on average are below 24 inches in length. Fusiliers These yellowtail fish feed on plankton and travel in schools for safety. They are closely related to snappers and members of the Caesionidae family. They can be found in the reefs in the Indo-Pacific. They can be up to 24 inches in length and their jaws are adaptable for eating plankton. Sea Urchin These echinoderms are marine invertebrates that are close relatives to the starfish. Urchins do not have eyes, but are able to sense their surroundings by their invertebrates. They can come in a variety of colors. They feed mostly on Algae. Scarlet Hermit Crab This species is known to be an omnivorous scavenger. They are named after their bright red legs, they also have yellow faces. They can consume a large amount of animal matter and algae. They can grow to be 1.5 inches in length. Their native habitat includes the coral reefs of the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. Moorish Idol This reef fish can be found in the shallow waters and flat reefs of East Africa, Indian Ocean, Hawaii, Southern Peru and California. They are natives of the Indo Pacific region. They can range to a length of 9 inches and have bands of white, yellow and black coloring. These fish tend to be omnivorous. They can live anywhere from two to four years. Giant Moray A species of eel found in the reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, have very dark brown spots with a yellow head. They can get up to 8 feet in length. They mainly feed on fish and crustaceans. Clownfish There are 28 known species of this anemonefish, which dwell mainly in warmer waters of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. They can be found to groom its anemone host from parasites and debris and bring in prey from the anemone to kill and eat. They are recognizable for their bright orange features with three distinctive white bars. An elaborate dance is done by the clownfish when it acclimates to a host and environment. Lionfish This is a popular saltwater aquarium fish with a scientific name Pterois volitans. They can be found in warm, tropical areas from the South Pacific to the Indian Ocean. They mainly inhabit coral reefs and prey on small fishes, shrimps and crabs. They have a distinct coloring of brown, maroon and white stripes with fleshy tentacles. They move slowly and are considered a top predator in coral reef environments. They consume more than 50 species of fishes and are considered active hunters. The largest lionfish has been reported to be around 15 inches in length, but they are on average about 12 inches. Christmas Tree Worm These are sedentary creatures that are shaped like Christmas trees. They come in a variety of colors that include orange, blue, white and yellow. They are found on coral reefs in tropical areas worldwide. They feed on phytoplankton and have radioles, or hair-like appendages, that catch the food. They average a length of 1.5 inches with twin spirals that are used for feeding. Silvertip Shark These species are distributed throughout tropical locations like the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This aggressive predator feeds on a variety of fishes, eagle rays, smaller sharks and cephalopods. They have very territorial behavior. They can grow to be up to 10 feet long and about 350 pounds. The silver white marks on the fin distinguish this species from other sharks. Manta Ray These species are among the largest rays in the world. They can be found swimming in tropical seas and live close to the shore and coral reef. They will migrate far in the search for food and are known to feed on plankton, angelfish, shrimp and a variety of small fish. An adult Manta Ray can consume up to 60 pounds of food in a day. Full grown, they can reach up to 25 feet in length and even weight up to 5,000 pounds. You can even catch Manta Rays breaching the surface as a form of communication or play. Big Eye Trevally This marine fish can be found in the tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They mainly inhabit reefs and travel in slow moving schools during the day and feed on a variety of fish, crustaceans, cephalopods and other invertebrates by night. These silver fish with large eyes can live up to 40 years. The juvenile fishes may shelter themselves among the tentacles of jellyfish for protection. Cape Gannet These animals are easily identifiable with their white bodies, black tails, distinct yellow crown and dark bills. A member of the gannet family Sulidae, they are known to be great divers that will hit the water at high speeds. They are fish eaters and that use a flap-guiding technique to capture its prey. They can be found off the coasts of South Africa, Namibia and some have been spotted as far east as Mozambique and Tanzania. Pipefish From the family of Syngnathidae, the small fishes are mainly marine dwellers. They are found mainly on tropical coasts and temperate areas. They can reach up to 35-40 cm in length and shelter themselves in areas like coral reefs, seagrass and sandy lagoons. More than 200 species of pipefish exist. They are in the same family as the seahorse and much like their relatives, parenting duties are left for the male. Sunfish Known as the world’s largest bony fish found in temperate and tropical oceans around the world. Also referred to as Mola, these animals are bullet-like in shape because their back fin never fully grows as they mature. They can reach nearly 5,000 pounds in weight and reach almost 14 feet vertically to 10 feet horizontally. The average lifespan is up to 10 years. Their choice for food includes jellyfish, small fish, zooplankton and algae. Brown Booby Members of the gannet family, Sulidae, the Brown Boobies are large seabirds found in areas like the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Their heads are and backs are typically black with white bellies. They are known to be spectacular divers and their diet consists mainly of small fish or squid they are able to gather from the surface of the sea. Green Turtle Green turtles inhabit tropical and subtropical coastal waters around the world. You may even catch them sunbathing on land. There are two types of green turtles that include the Atlantic green turtle found off the shores of Europe and North America and the Eastern Pacific green turtle found off the coastal waters from Alaska to Chile. These animals are herbivores that feed on sea greases and algae. They can get anywhere up to 700 pounds and are among the largest of sea turtles in the world. Mako Shark Lives in temperate or tropical locations and are best known for their fighting abilities. The Shortfin Mako Shark can leap anywhere up to 20 feet into the air above the water. Shortfin makos can travel long distances to seek prey or mates. They mainly feast on mackerels, tunas, bonitos and swordfish. There are also instances where they will prey on other sharks, sea turtles and seabirds. They are known to be one of the fastest species of shark. Jellyfish These creatures live along the ocean currents and many types exist in all the world’s oceans and can even be found in freshwater. Jellyfish are classified in the phylum Coelenterata . The opening of their mouth is located inside their bell-shaped body where they eat and discard waste. The bell is also used to propel the jellyfish and their tentacles to sting and capture their prey. They are invertebrates and don't have a backbone. 1 comments   Get Livefyre FAQ Sign in + Follow Post comment Link Newest | Oldest Silvina Gutierrez 5pts Buen día!